Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro , information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Dr Daniel Wahba, a dentist from Lutz, says that at St Lukes Dental, they are working extensively in embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.
Post natal dental stem cell research is in very nascent stages, but seems to be a very promising solution and a viable technology that will be accessible to the public in a short few years.Tooth loss or absence is a common and frequent situation that can result from numerous pathologies such as periodontal and carious diseases, fractures, injuries or even genetic alterations. In most cases this loss is not critical, but for aesthetical, psychological and medical
reasons (e.g. genetic aberrations) replacement of the
missing teeth is important. Recent efforts made in the field
of biomaterials have led to the development of dental
implants composed of biocompatible materials such as
titanium that can be inserted in the maxillary and/or
mandibular bone to replace the missing teeth. However,
implants are still not completely satisfactory and their
successful use greatly depends on their osteointegration.
The quantity and quality of the bone, as well as its
interaction with the surface of the implant are some crucial